Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

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Hormone Replacement Therapy-The Types

HRT (Hormone replacement therapy, also referred to as hormone therapy, estrogen replacement therapy, or menopausal hormone therapy, is a treatment that uses the female hormones progesterone and estrogen to treat the symptoms of aging and menopause. Doctors prescribe the treatment during or after menopause.

After your periods have stopped, the level of your hormones decreases, causing uncomfortable symptoms like hot flashes and vaginal dryness, and sometimes conditions like osteoporosis. The HRT replaces the hormones that your body is no longer capable of making. It is the most effective treatment or menopausal symptoms.

The Use of Estrogen in the Body
You might think of pregnancy when you think of oestrogen. In women who are in the age of childbearing, estrogen helps the uterus to get ready to receive the fertilized egg. Estrogen has other uses in the body too, as it helps in raising the levels of good cholesterol, and also controls the manner in which your body utilizes calcium which is used to strengthen bone.

When is the Right Time to Tale Progesterone
If you have your womb, it is not advisable to take estrogen without progesterone as it grows your cancer of the endometrium risk. The fact that the endometrium cells are no longer leaving your body during your period, they may build up in the womb and lead to cancer. The work of progesterone is reducing that risk by thickening the lining.

The Types of Hormone Replacement Therapy
Doctors recommend a low dose of estrogen for women who have had a hysterectomy, the surgical removal of the uterus. Estrogen is available in many forms; the daily pill and patch are the most common, but the hormone can still be found in the forms of vaginal ring, gel or spray.

Estrogen/Progesterone Therapy
This mostly called the combination therapy as it combines doses of estrogen and progestin. This treatment method is meant for women who still have their uterus.

Women with a family history of osteoporosis as well as those experiencing mild to severe symptoms of menopause are all candidates for hormone replacement therapy.If however, you have breast cancer, liver or heart disease or don’t suffer from the menopausal symptoms; then you are not fit for the hormone replacement therapy.

HRT Regimes
Depending on whether you are in the early stages of the menopause, or you have had the menopausal symptoms for a while, you have different HRT courses to choose. The most common are the Sequential of Cyclical and the Continuous HRT.

The cyclical or sequential therapy is meant for women using the combined HRT and have the menopausal symptoms but are still having their periods. It is of two types; the monthly HRT and the three-monthly HRT.

Continuous Combined HRT is recommended for women who are post-menopausal–not having a period for a year. It is the continued use of estrogen and progesterone every day without a break.

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Pest Exterminators and the Nature of Their Work

Identifying how extreme the client’s pest infestation problem, this is what pest exterminators do first. If the exterminators already know the problem then the next they’ll do is devise a plan to stop further damage brought by pests however the plan will only be executed once the clients approve it. There are two options by which pest exterminators do their work, they could be associated with a pest control agency or they work solely. For those working under a certain pest control company, they might offer a number of services to various clients. For pest exterminators who are working as a one-man band then it is expected for them to offer a limited pest control services. The income that pest exterminators gain is pretty much varied from one exterminator to another. The pay they receive is often reliant on the nature of their work, are they affiliated with an exterminating company or not second will include the place they are working. The danger of an exterminator’s work is extremely high plus this could be physically demanding too. What makes their job unsafe is that they often deal with strong chemicals and they also need to be in very confined areas to carry on their job.

As exterminators do their job over time they start to become more skillful furthermore majority of exterminators is able to finish secondary education. Keep in mind that pest exterminators also take certain examinations related to their work in order to gain certificates. There are some countries that are very stern when it comes to laws related to application of chemicals used in pest extermination. As a matter of fact some requires exterminators to undergo training courses developed and organized by the government. This also includes assessment on how to handle chemicals properly. This kind of assessment is performed in order to determine whether they are capable of applying chemicals efficiently.

When exterminators arrive at a certain place where pest infestation is happening, they usually assess the problem and ask certain questions to the clients. The next thing they do is to conduct a thorough inspection of the entire pest infested facility to determine the extent of the problem. They will check those areas wherein pests are visible. Another thing they’ll do is look for other areas where pests are probably present. If there are tree stumps found in the place, they might also check for those places for it might house termites too. Proper waste disposal is also a necessity for this could result to rat infestation.

If they have already understand the whole problem they will now discuss things with owners and provide them a handful of pest control solutions. Most of the time this solutions would involve application of pest control chemicals, release of gas within the premises of the property or trap them.

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The Essentials of Contractors – The Basics

Steps To Choose General Contractor

A general contractor is a specialist in complete remodeling of your house, and they can also suggest you various ways in which you can move ahead with the whole process. The main duty of these contractors is to supervise the construction of the property may it be residential or commercial. A single mistake can result in some major fault in your house and this is the reason you will have to look after good companies and to get in touch with good companies; you will have to check for certain criteria.If these criteria are looked for you will get a company which will provide you with their best service for your home renovation.

The first thing that you will have to look for in a General Contractor is the experience that the company has. You will have to ask them for the quotes regarding everything, right from the raw material that is going to get used in the renovation to the labor charges so that no confusion is created in the end. Once you get the details about the quotes and the prices charged by the General Contractor you can then check out for the designs and patterns available with them. They will also take care of the plumbing as well as electrical parts.

Whether you are planning for roofing and other types of repairs; general contractors can serve you the best advice for this.The materials which are used by them for the repairing will also be of good quality as they have the proper knowledge on every aspect of this field.Cost of all these things will be included in the price quoted by the general contractor. Due to all these factors, it is better to opt for a reputed general contractor rather than finding out many specialized contractors.To get options for these contractors, referring to real estate agents is a great idea because they are into property business for a very long period as a result of which it would become easier for them to offer you some great options related to this.

You will be required to insert keywords like a general contractor or general contractor, and the search engine will come up with thousands of options for you.Many people shy away from seeking professional help since they consider that finding a specialized person is quite daunting but it is not true as you can find a qualified general contractor provided that you know how to look for the right person for the job. You can carry out a verification process by asking for certificates and credentials and check past track record to ensure his/her efficiency.On hiring an expert to discuss your tastes and preferences so that you end up getting what you have expected and confirm your agreement with your contractor through a written contract and this way you can expect having the best outcome for your home improvement project.

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What Can An Interior Designer Do For You?

Many homeowners hesitate to engage an interior designer when they require help with enhancing the decor in their homes. Designing a home is no mean feat and is not as easy as it seems and it is much more than buying furniture and placing it all over your home, and it’s more than having your home painted from a painting contractor.Some people will have them do all of the design work and sit back and let this happen and this all depends on your knack for design as well as the budget that you are working on.

A person does not get cheap furniture when they are looking for interior designers and they will get the quality products so that the design lasts. If a person wants to have a look that flows and a sense that the home has been well planned and thought out, they should look into hiring an Interior Designer. The roles of interior designer and interior decorator are used interchangeably and very inaccurately so.The designer can work with a person about getting the best furniture for the project. If you have a new home, it may be overwhelming to try to plan out all of the new furniture you’ll need, and how to tie it together with your existing pieces.Just because a person does not have much money does not mean that they cannot or should not seek out the advice of a designer when it comes to choosing items for their home.A designer can help those who may be wondering about such a decision make one more easily and can even completely decorate a home or even a room.

An interior decorator is a person who has gone through an art education course, is equipped with some basic knowledge about designing techniques but is not certified to make any structural changes even within the four walls of your home.They can also help you pick suitable furniture from furniture store.You don’t want to be stuck with a contemporary-style living room couch and an antique coffee-table, do you? The best furniture store is not necessarily the one that has the largest variety of furniture.It could simply be the one that has something that matches your taste and requirement.You can search by product as well and if you are going to a physical furniture store, get your designer to accompany you.

They consult with the clients and find out their requirements and try to help them achieve turning their design dreams into reality.Do not hesitate to let the designer know your expectations and personal preferences such as styles and color.They help you plan the project from A to Z and provide the necessary resources for their clients and these include custom furniture, outdoor patio furniture, fine furniture and kitchen & bath remodeling. Go through their gallery, and you will find beautiful pieces of furniture that will proudly grace any home.

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Learning The Secrets About Remodels

How To Go About Bathroom Remodeling In Your Home

For some reasons, the need to prepare or make a bathroom floor plan arises and it could be because you’ve built a new extension and you wish to include new bathroom, you’re planning to renovate an existing bathroom space, you’ve converted a separate bathroom and toilet into one bigger space or that you’ve absorbed a storeroom to give a larger bathroom. The design needs to cover everything from bathroom cabinets to bathroom sinks.Having a plumber and an electrician coordinate their work may be a time to consume and hassling work.

Make sure that you do not forget to include all the fixtures in the bathroom, or where the door, windows, and other permanent features are.

If, for instance, you are installing a new upstairs bathroom the best thing to do is to install it in the kitchen or a downstairs bathroom and the only plumbing required is to link the new plumbing with the plumbing that is already there. Know whether your tub will be a combination shower and tub or those tub jets with irregular shapes. Remember that when it comes to items such as the vanity table, towel racks, mirrors, cabinets and shelving, your plumber will be needing this information because electrical outlets, or plug sockets, will be put in.Wouldn’t it be great if the remodeled bathroom enhances the overall value of the house?Since most people want their bathrooms to be spacious and open, one should opt for that while making a design decision. Irrespective of the variation between different bathroom remodeling designs, one needs to consider a few specified things. Likewise, the bathroom cabinets also need to be light in color to reproduce the similar effect but you can be more liberal while selecting the designs for your sink. Bathroom remodeling designs need to consider both comfort and style hence while selecting a shower comfort remains the most significant factor.Although we must take care that the shower must not ruin the general impression, comfort remains a major concern.

Since no two bathrooms are same, what you may have seen in someone else’s home might not turn out to be the requirements in your case. These people are experienced in their work.One should get a person who has handled such projects before and is familiar with plumbing and wiring work for bathrooms.When one hires a contractor, usually these things are taken care of.Any experienced contractor will also warn that there might be small changes that might come about in the budget when the project commences.Thinking about where the contractor will place the equipment, ensuring that the passage to the door is clear are things that the home owner should take care of before the project begins.Thinking about where the contractor will place the equipment, ensuring that the passage to the door is clear are things that the home owner should take care of before the project begins.

If you like to hire the best remodeler, search online for comprehensive options.

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3 Pets Tips from Someone With Experience

How to Choose a Good Veterinarian

When someone has a pet animal that they really care about then they tend to build a great affections towards the animal. These pet animals range from the normal domestic animals we know to the wild animals that have been tamed. When these animals get sick the medical care they receive should be the correct one and from a specialist. The expertise required from the vet is important at this point. If you need your animal to be treated well then you need to be told the truth about it. It is very important to get to the correct vet clinic with someone who has enough experience. For you to get good service it are important to have a good amount set aside as some are expensive. To get the best medical care for your animal then the you need to set up a medical insurance cover for your pet animal.

Some of the problems that come with the pets are more associated with age, and you as the owner might not be able to notice this because animals grow old faster humans. At some point or other unavoidable problems like bone problems or loss of sight are imminent. As a pet owner, you witness their ailments and diseases sooner than you ever expected. When you are getting a good medical care for your pet, you need to put something into consideration. First of all you need to get informed by people, who have visited the doctor before, get the information from them. The information that you require can be found in many other places.

It is advisable that you get all the information that you can on the pet clinic that you choose to visit. Ensure that you seek professional from an expert with experience in that field. There are vets who carry out a sham business and to be on the safe side, do a thorough background check on them specifically on their education. There must be proof that the vet attended a legit education body and has got the necessary certification to support them. The supporting document should not be kept secret. Being a specialist is not something that is only said, it needs to be proved and therefore you should confirm it personally. In case an emergency arises, you should know how the vet is prepared to handle it and also the opening hours of the clinic. Knowing all this information will give you a good grip of what is to be offered by the veterinarian and his/her clinic.

Finally, it is important to know the mode of payment and the fee that he would charge for a normal checkup. If by any chance you got an insurance cover for your pet, you must be sure to inquire about the same since there are some clinics that do not accept insurance.

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This Is Where You Get The Best Orthodontics Services Now.

Our teeth have a very great significance when it comes on how people judge and see our beauty. That is the critical reason as to why we need to pay proper and maximal attention about how our teeth look like so as to have a good beauty definition. There are many things that we can do that are normally related to the maintenance of the teeth in good condition. In as much that we are able to maintain the condition of our teeth from our homes, there is some special care and maintenance that can only be carried out by doctors and professionals who are skilled. The orthodontist are the category of the doctors who are also the dentists who are specializes in the maintenance for the teeth. The training that they have undergone and their experience as hob practitioners have enabled them to be very skilled and perfect practitioners of solving many problems related to the teeth. You can now check this information on the internet about the orthodontist fort worth.

There are some of the people who have been suffering from teeth conditions that have killed their confidence in public speaking. This is because some of the people may think that they are not fit to stand and address the public due to the looks of their teeth. The most common problems that is being faced by many people is that of the stained teeth. The most common cause of this problem is drinking mineral water. When we want to restore our teeth back to white color, they can b bleached using compactible chemicals to our teeth in order to get back our desired looks. Whenever you visit your trusted orthodontics organization, all your needs for the oral health will be perfectly met.

There is another instance whereby our teeth are not well aligned in the mouth. This is a condition that is caused by many factors. However, there is a real working solution that can be implemented to correct the situation. People are normally given braces that they normally fit into their mouths to help restore the proper teeth alignment. People can choose between the metallic braces and the invisalign braces to wear. The invisalign braces are however more hygienic. Their material is transparent rubber

View the advertisement for the services on the internet. Read on the internet the articles about the orthodontic care. There are very many things that have been done to restore the beauty of the smile. The dentists from the Kuperman Orthodontics will be able to provide all the necessary services that you may require them done on your teeth. In order to check this, look out for their websites and see the pages and you can click now for more information.

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See the Reasons Most People Decide To Choose Home Construction Instead Of Pre-Owned Homes

It is good to know that you can build your house from the foundation level instead of buying a home that someone else once owned. If you talk to different people, you would get varied reasons why their idea of constructing a home would not be easy to replace. Definitely home construction is beneficial for people who want to live in an environment that suits their lifestyles. The truth is that you would find it easy to do home construction and still have all your requirements or needs met.

One of the benefits of home construction is that you would enjoy a better neighborhood. Before you choose where to build your home, you would have the opportunity to check on the different communities around. When communities are being established, it is always possible to make good neighbors.

People who opt to choose a home construction program are sure of several amenities they can enjoy, which those who bought complete homes may never have.This means you would make your own decisions on the kind of appliances, tiles, and carpet you would want to see in that house. Moreover, you would also choose the kind of garden tubs and bathtubs you would want to see in the home you have constructed. This means the counters and cabinets you make would have your own choice color that identifies with you in some ways. You would actually be happy to enjoy any kind customization done in that house since it would be your own creation.

One of the other advantages of home construction is that you would have fewer problems to encounter. People prefer building their house because the electric they would use there would be tested first to ensure it is free from avoidable electric hazards. Once you have settled to go the home construction way, you are actually assured of having a new roof over your house and this is a great thing. It would be easier to supervise and confirm that a drywall is in place to ensure you would not encounter some of the problems related to mildew and mold that other people encounter.

One more thing you need to know is that the cleanliness you would maintain in that house would match what you want to see. This means they would not have to fight some stubborn stains and paints that the previous homeowner never removed. It would be an added advantage to you having a house that is looking and smelling new.

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Short Course on Electricians – Getting to Square 1

Ways of Find a Reliable Electrician.

Electrical wiring in your home not only needs to be in good condition but also modernized. Fire or short circuit accidents may occur if the electrical wiring was not done correctly. It is essential to consult an electrician when an electrical related problem arises.

Below are tips on how to find the right electrician. Ensure that the electrician providing the services is licensed. An electrician who provides competent work is the one who has obtained a license through passing a standardize test. Electricians who have offered their services for at least two years can sit for the test.

Any qualified electrician knows concerning electrical code and the updated data. A license is only given to the electrician who is well qualified for installing, planning, and maintaining the electrical system. Ensure that the electrical contractor you have hire owns a state license.

A journeyman electrician is below average. Thus he cannot have a master license. This simply means that both journeyman and master electrician has specialized in different electrical fields. Elecical systems designing can only be performed by a master electrician, and the journeyman is qualified in installations and wiring.
Find out whether the electrician you are about to hire is permitted.

The building department will help you know whether the electrician has a permit or not. An electrician who follows regulations and building codes has a likelihood of having an electrical license from the building inspector. You will be guaranteed of better results only if the electrician is permitted.

It is essential to focus on selecting an electrician who can complete our projects properly. Most of the electricians are more competent in a specific electrical job. Some have the job of handling the new construction site projects while other do service calls or may focus on commercial property.

Before hiring one, find out the field of expertise of the electrician. It is important to hire an electrician with defenses. Refrerences helps you determine the electrical that fits your job. It is good to check the references of any potential electrician.

Consulting you friends and family members is a great way to know if the electrician is capable of providing good services. Checking reference is a good idea especially for the small business; however, it might not be important for those who have more extensive work done.

For example, you may consider having your home rewired, it might be helpful to speak to a few of the electrician’s former clients who also had this work done. You can get a competent electrician from most of the contractors. A housing contractor can help you especially when you want new rooms to be constructed. Make a good choice for better results.

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